Long Shot: tells the audience where the film is set, lets you know all the important information.
Close-up: When something/someone important needs to be shown to the audience then a close-up is used.
Continuity: Generally refers to visual errors. Basic example: A character wears a red top and then seconds later wear a blue top.
Cutting (Editing) : Essential part otherwise films would be in real time and never end. Allows director to change location. Main use is to either add pace to a scene to make it exciting (action films) or to slow it down for dramatic purpsoses (Romance films)
Composition: How the film is put together.